Tokens and Literacy

Credit: Bex Walton
Credit: Bex Walton

For a few years now I’ve been interested in clay tokens, and specifically how in later periods (1st millennium b.c.e.) they relate to the already existing written tradition.  The traditional literature on tokens mentions they’re early role as an antecedent to writing and then neglects to make any comment on their possible use in later periods.  My work in Turkey at the site of Ziyaret Tepe has shown that tokens were in use in the 1st millennium b.c.e and they seem to be found in contexts associated with written records.

I initially started by writing a short section in our bi-annual co-authored site report.  This kernel then turned into a term paper for a professor here at Brown, which then became a talk at the American Oriental Studies annual conference.  From there I make a poster for a conference in Cambridge, England.  That conference graciously invited me to publish in their post-conference volume, the article I am now preparing.  Finally I was accepted to give another talk at the American Schools of Oriental Research conference this fall.  Each step of the way the ideas have change slightly and become more fleshed out.  Oh and I forgot to mention, along the way I contributed to a co-authored paper with other members of the dig on tokens in general in the 1st milennium.  I’ve certainly received a lot of traction from this one topic, but I think it’s rather important.  Up until now it was a completely neglected field of research, the body of evidence remained unpublished and unstudied.

My own take on the issue is that clay tokens were a concomitant technology with writing.  The evidence from Ziyaret Tepe shows clay tokens spread in large quantities around a courtyard and rooms, two of which seem to the be the tablet storage for an administrative archive.  Also found in this area, were a large weight, and a puzzling clay tag with a written name.  The texts found in this area record large quantities of grain and other staples going in and out of the storerooms.  The way I see tokens used here, is as temporary storage devices for accounts.  The difficulty with clay tablets is that they dry quickly and methods for preserving their surface for writing are spotty at best.  Tokens would serve as a perfect tool to keep accounts over a period of time while the transaction was accruing.  When all was said and done the account could be recorded on a tablet and filed away.  The purpose of the article for the conference volume is to try and explain this method further.  In some ways my task is aided by the fact that we found another tablet last season which recorded a tally of sheep, showing that if the tokens were used for arithmetic and accounting they were independent of a specific semantic association, grain, wool, wood etc…

Finally, the end goal for this project is to make some connections between the use of tokens with writing as an entry form of literacy.  Too often in past discussions of literacy, the ability to comprehend written characters is restricted to a tiny portion of the population.  I’d like to see tokens as a way to breach that divide and start to understand the mental abilities necessary to understand record information and access it at a later point in time.

Ancient History

The Roman god of History, Janus, from Wikipedia
The Roman god of time, Janus, from Wikipedia


One of the requirements for my PhD is to write a sample syllabus for a course I could imagine teaching.  It’s a useful exercise which forces you to think about what you want to teach in the long term, and how you want to teach it.  In a sense it’s an exercise in creating an academic “persona”.  What kind of teacher will you be, heavy on lecture and light on readings, little assessment or lots?  There are many ways to present the material and now I’m forced to choose a path and go down it.

I’ve opted to create a syllabus for a course on Hellenistic Babylonia.  I did this partly out of the desire to learn more about that particular time period as my own research focuses on material from Seleucid Uruk and Babylon.  The course was intended to be a survey of Mesopotamian history with a focus on the later half of the 1st millennium B.C.E.  I was keen to include both cuneiform and classical sources and use the class as a way to teach a method of combining the two.  However, as I read more on the classical sources I become interested in the way this course could be used to teach issues around history.  I read Luke Pitcher’s book “Writing Ancient History: An Introduction to Classical Historiography” which I found very engaging and interesting.  While the book entirely focuses on the classical world, I found many of his chapters useful in designing my course.  I’m now working through my initial outline of the syllabus to add more readings and content on the act of reading and writing history.  My tentative title is currently: “Hellenistic Babylonia: Perspectives on the Writing of a History”.

New Blog

I decided to take the plunge and start self-hosting websites.  I started with my wife’s blog/site as a venue for her to put up art and talk about her artistic process.  I wanted another site that I could experiment and write on.  Eventually I’d like to start hosting sites for friends and family.

I went with digitalocean for hosting.  I liked their cheap VPS options, and their website looks pretty professional.  On the backend, the management of droplets (their term for servers) is really slick.  You also only pay for the time you use.  So you can fire up a droplet briefly if need be and then shut it back down.

They also have a host of great tutorials which make setting up various server tasks really easy.  I’m running these sites on nginx (a first for me), and wordpress of course.  Nginx is pretty slick, I’m really enjoying how modular the server configuration files are.  It’s nice that you can keep server configurations around, and activate and deactivate them without changing the files.

The first time I was able to host two websites from one IP address was a mind opening experience.  The way a webserver can interpret the HTTP request and serve up different files depending on the domain requested makes a lot of sense in retrospect.  This server is now hosting,, and our domain from our wedding site:  I’m using, which is ok, not completely sold on them yet.


NB: Post prior to this are imported from an old blog.